THE UNKNOWN VIVALDI, the biography
- The Vivaldi Link - an introduction _
That Antonio Vivaldi’s name is know the world over can be attributed almost entirely to a single piece of music, The Four Seasons, first published in 1725 and still enjoying tremendous success today. Who would have thought that tucked away in the composers private library were hundreds of other pieces from his hand ranging from operas and sacred music to hundreds of concertos for one, two, three or more instruments. Most of it had not been published in his lifetime and was consequently forgotten after his death. Incredibly, this vast collection of music reappeared nearly intact in 1930 when it was purchased by the Biblioteca Nazionale in Turin, Italy, but it is only in recent years that this music has begun to be recorded and included in public concerts.
Vivaldi’s life is shrouded in mystery and myth. What are the facts? Scholars have been working for years slowly piecing together Antonio Vivaldi’s biography. Their publications however, tend to be in specialised journals that are not easily accessible to the non-specialist. Much of the information on this site has been based on the meticulous work of a handful of Vivaldi scholars whose names and works can be found in the bibliography.
The purpose of this site is to provide the public with accurate, documented biographical information in an easy-to-consult format that will continually be updated as new elements come to light. It addition, it provides difficult to find information on modern editions of Vivaldi’s music, a bibliography, a tour map of Vivaldi’s Venice, and a listing of all recordings of Vivaldi’s music since 1999 as well as current, Vivaldi-related news. Here too you will be able to listen to much of Vivaldi’s music, see “backstage” films of recording sessions and listen to radio interviews which function as a guide to listening to Vivaldi’s music.
In 2000 the Vivaldi Edition recording project was launched to record Vivaldi’s music in a systematic order in performances by some of today’s finest specialists in the field. Slowly the public has begun to discover the operas, the sacred and secular vocal music, the myriad instrumental concertos and much more. Our perception of Vivaldi is changing and his position in our cultural history is being reassessed. An exceptional chapter in our musical heritage that had been severly overshadowed is being unveiled – an exciting moment for all.
A few notes about this site:
The site’s music player changes at random, allowing the viewer to discover Vivaldi’s music. However, it can be turned on or off by the viewer. For those wishing to sample specific recordings from the Vivaldi Edition, excerpts from all 36 cds released to date can be heard under “The Vivaldi Edition”.
- Birth _
The baptismal register of the Church of San Giovanni in Bràgora in Venice contains the following entry:
6 May 1678. Antonio Lucio, son of Giovanni Battista, instrumentalist and son of the late Agostino Vivaldi, musician, and his wife Camilla, daughter of the late Camillo Calicchio, born this 4 March, on which day he received home baptism from midwife Margarita Veronese due to danger of death, was brought to the church this day. I, Giacomo Fornacieri, parish priest, performed the exorcisms and christening, at which Antonio Gerolamo Vecelio, owner of the Doge Apothecary in our parish, was godfather.
One theory which circulates has it that Vivaldi was baptised in extremis because of an earthquake which supposedly shook Venice on 4 March, 1678. No document attesting to this earthquake has been found in the Venetian archives.
A more probable theory relates to the health of Antonio Vivaldi. He himself claimed that from birth he suffered from a chronic problem which he called “strettezza di petto” (tightening of the chest, probably a form of asthma). It is likely that already at birth he showed signs of weakness and was, consequently, quickly baptised.
- Family _
Antonio Vivaldi’s father, Giovanni Battista, was originally from Brescia where he was born in about 1655. Sometime around 1665 his family moved to Venice. Giovanni Battista was trained as a barber and as a violinist, two professions which often went hand-in-hand at the time. At some point in life Giovanni seems to have abandoned the profession of barber, having become a full-time professional musician. He was employed by the Capella Ducale at St. Mark’s in 1685, taught violin at the Ospedale dei Mendicanti and performed in the city’s principal opera houses.
Camilla Calicchio, Vivaldi’s mother, was the daughter of a Venetian tailor. She married Giovanni Battista in 1676 and had nine children of whom Antonio was the eldest.
Giovanni Battista was very close to his son throughout his life and one has the impression they were almost inseparable. In Venice they lived under the same roof until Giovanni’s death which was just five years before Antonio himself died. Giovanni frequently accompanied his son on his travels, shared the running of the Teatro Sant Angelo with him and acted as one of Antonio’s principal copyists.
Vivaldi lived at home all his life with the exception of the years he was away in Mantua or travelling. Even during the years of his preparation for the priesthood he lodged with his parents rather than in the seminary. Two of Vivaldi’s sisters appear to have lived at home all of their lives as well. Three of the composer’s nephews became music copyists.
The picture which emerges is one of a close-knit, modest family that joined forces to aid a highly talented son whose music was being solicited by nobles and patrons throughout Europe. The income this represented for the family would have been significant and by creating a cottage-industry they were able to insure that Antonio had maximum freedom to compose.
The family moved four times in Vivaldi’s lifetime. Until 1705 they lived on the Campo Bandiera e Moro, the same piazza on which the Church of San Giovanni à Bràgora is located. From 1706 to 1722 they resided at Campo San Provolo. Between 1722 and 1730 they were living at the Ponte de Paradiso, Campo Santa Maria Formosa and they took up final residence in 1730 at Calle Bembo. Antonio Vivaldi left for Vienna from this residence in 1740 never to return.
- Priesthood _
Antonio Vivaldi began his studies for the priesthood in 1693, at the age of 15. His unusual musical talents would have certainly been evident by then but the priesthood would have offered him more chances of social mobility coming, as he did, from a family of humble origins. He did not attend the principal seminary on the island of Murano but rather was enrolled to receive training near the family home, first at the Church of St. Geminiano and later at the Church of San Giovanni in Oleo. This arrangement allowed Vivaldi to pursue his religious training as an external student throughout his ten-year apprenticeship. He was ordained to the priesthood on 23 March 1703.
That same year he was appointed to his first position as a professional musician, becoming a violin teacher (maestro di violino) and priest at the Ospedale della Pietà, an institution for foundlings. It should be remembered that many clergymen had double careers at the time. However, in November of 1706 Antonio asked to be dispensed from the function of celebrating mass. In a letter written at the end of his life to Count Bentivoglio he explained that he had been compelled to abandon this particular priestly duty because of his chest ailment (male di petto ossia strettezza di petto) which is thought to have been an acute form of asthma.
- Violin virtuoso _
Antonio’s father, Giovanni Battista, was an accomplished and recognized violinist in Venice where he was a member of the orchestra of San Marco, played in several Venetian theatres and, for a period, taught violin at the Ospedale dei Mendicanti. Quite naturally, he would have been the first to begin teaching the violin to Antonio. Later, aware of his son’s exceptional talent, he may have organized for Antonio to receive some musical training from others as well.
There are virtually no documents on Vivaldi’s music activities until 1696 when we find his name in account registers of the Cappella Ducal of St. Mark’s as having been paid as an extra violinist in a Christmas performance that year.
In a letter from 1701 a musician from Bologna attested to being with Giovanni Battista Vivaldi and one of his sons whom “is as virtuostic as he is”.
In 1703, at the age of 25, and the year he was ordained priest, he was also engaged as a violin teacher at La Pietà, testimony that he had found time during his religious training for intensive music studies as well.
In a tourist guide to Venice published in 1706 and 1713 (Guida de’ forestieri by Vicenzo Coronelli) Vivaldi father and son are mentioned as among the city’s leading violinists. Documents have been found attesting to Vivaldi father and son in concert in Brescia in 1711, Padova in 1712 and Vicenza in 1717.
In 1713 he performed at the church of S.ta Corona in Vicenza. A document describing the concerts refers to “the virtuoso Sig. D. Antonio Vivaldi maestro di concerti della Pietà in Venice, who with his miraculous violin played an intermedio”. ("il quale con il suo miracoloso violino fe’ un intermedio…”)
In 1715 the German architect and music lover Johann Friedrich Armand von Uffenbach heard Vivaldi play a “solo accompaniment – splendid – to which he appended a cadenza [phantasie] which really frightened me, for such playing has never been nor can be. He brought his fingers up to only a straw’s distance from the bridge, leaving no room for the bow – and that on all four strings with imitations [Fugen] and incredible speed”.
Later, he invited Vivaldi to his house where, he wrote “he let me listen to his very difficult and quite inimitable fantasias on the violin, and being so close, I could not but marvel at his skill”
In 1717 Antonio performed in Cento where one admirer wrote “passing through the city was one of the first violinists of Venice, D. Antonio Vivaldi, celebrated composer and performer on the violin and the viola d’amore who was coming to play at vespers in the church which was packed with so many people there was nearly a stampede…. He played in the evening three beautiful sinfonie’s… so exquisitly that I can assure you I have never heard anything similar in my life”.
In 1720 and 1722 Edward Wright wrote from Italy, “It is remarkable to see priests playing in the orchestras. The famous Vivaldi, well-known for his concertos, is the most remarkable among them”.
Vivaldi claims to have played twice for the Pope in his private chambers, probably in 1724 during his sojourn in Rome: “…I played in the theatre, and even before his Holiness who wanted to hear me play and how many thanks I received.”
In 1737 in a letter to Marchese Guido Bentivoglio, he affirmed “I never play in the orchestra, except for the first performance, because I am not worthy of being a performer”. Clearly, there was a touch of pride in the sixty-year-old artist who was tired of being a violin phenomenon and wished to be recognised for his talent as a composer.
Vivaldi was a virtuoso who had few equals and his talents were known throughout Europe. Notice of his death was reported in the Commemorali Gradenigo where he was referred to as the “excellent violinist” (“Eccellentissimo”).
It was this exceptional ability on the violin which led him to write over 250 concerti for this instrument. The influence of this body of work and it’s impact on the history of music is only beginning to be understood.
Much of the material above is drawn from Olivier Fourés’ thesis, L’Oeuvre pour violon d’Antonio Vivaldi soon to be published.
- Illness _
In a letter which Vivaldi wrote to Marchese Guido Bentivoglio on 16 November 1737 Vivaldi said:
“I have not celebrated Mass in twenty-five years and will never say Mass again, not because of an interdiction or an order but because of my own decision owing to the ailment from which I have suffered from birth and which still afflicts me.
After being ordained a priest I celebrated Mass for a year or somewhat longer, after which I stopped because my ailment forced me to leave the alter three times without finishing Mass. I therefore spend most of my life at home, which I can only leave in a gondola or coach, because my chest ailment or constriction of the chest does not permit me to walk.
No nobleman calls me to his house, not even our prince, because they all know of my condition. I usually go outside immediately after lunch, though never on foot. Such is the reason I cannot celebrate Mass… My travels were always very expensive because I always took along four or five persons to assist me.”
Vivaldi’s description of himself as a man seriously handicapped by a debilitating malady may be slightly exaggerated. However, it would seem unlikely that he could have created a wildly exaggerated description of himself for a patron who knew him personally.
- La Pietà _
The late 17th-century saw the decline of sacred music in the leading churches in favour of public music in the city’s four Ospedali, charitable institutions for orphaned, abandoned or illegitimate children. The tradition of public concerts on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays was an early form of public concert life and brought in money which helped finance the Ospedali. Consequently, these institutions gradually took on the characteristics of music schools or conservatories. The high standard of the Pietà orchestra made their concerts especially famous. One German musician claimed them to have “an orchestra so select as to be found only at a few large courts”.
The city’s leading male musicians (often priests) were engaged as music teachers in the Ospedali, desirable positions because they insured a fixed income while leaving time for the maestri to engage in other artistic activities.
In 1703, at the age of twenty-five, Antonio Vivaldi was hired as a violin teacher by one of the finest of these institutes, the Osepdale della Pietà. To obtain this coveted position at such a young age attests to the high reputation he enjoyed in Venice as a virtuostic violinist. His affiliation with La Pietà was maintained on and off until 1738, only a few years before he died. During that time his role evolved from that of violin teacher to house-composer and conductor of the orchestra (maestro di concerti). For a musician of such talent having a full-time orchestra at his disposition was an exceptional situation of which he took full advantage. The great part of Vivaldi’s prolific output of instrumental and sacred music were written for the Ospedale’s orchestra.
A detailed account of the Ospedale della Pietà can be found in Micky White’s article on-line at: www.soundpostonline.com/archive/summer2002/page10.htm
The most complete study of the Ospedale institutions in 18th-century Venice is Pier Giuseppe Gillio's publication L'Attività Musicale negli Ospedali di Venezia nel Settecento published by Olschki Editore, Florence in 2006.
IMAGE: One of the only images known of the Ospedale della Pietà as it was in Vivaldi's time. The entrance to the church is in the building on the right of the alley which today is the Hotel Metropole. The building on the left of the alley, which was probably part of the ospedale complex, was torn down and replaced in 1745 with the Chiesa della Pietà that still stands there to this day.
- Teatro Sant'Angelo _
Built by the architect and scenery designer Francesco Santurini, the Teatro Sant’Angelo was inaugurated in 1677. Thebuilding was situated close to the Canal Grande, not far from the Rialto bridge. The hall was said to have 136 boxes and though it was not one of the most prestigious opera theatres in Venice it nonetheless thrived, until end of the 18thcentury. The theatre, one of eleven in Venice at the time (Paris had three), no longer exists today.
It was with the Sant’Angelo theatre that Vivaldi was the most actively involved as a composer. Eighteen of his operas had their first performance there, as well as numerous revivals. In 1713 he was appointed impresario (manager) and resident composer of the theatre. This would have included setting up the seasons, which often included at least one of his own operas, contracting singers, scene directors and dancers, and overseeing rehearsals and productions. Naturally, it would also have fallen upon him to balance the budget.
The question which often arises is how Vivaldi, with his debilitating illness, managed to take on such a stressful job while simultaneously teaching at the Pietà and composing. One hypothesis is that the running of the theatre became a family affair. Such family collaborations were common at the time and Vivaldi, who lived at home along with his father, mother, two sisters and sometimes his brothers as well, could have easily engaged their services.
The following 18th-century letters contain precious descriptions of the Venetian opera theatres and their public:
From the German musician Johann Christoph Nemeitz in his work Nachlese besonderer Nachrichten von Italien published in Leipzig in 1726:
“There are a number of opera houses in Venice, yet the best are St. Chrysostomo, St. Angelo, St. Moses and St. Cassiano. Unlike Paris, London, Hamburg and other cities, operas [in Venice] are not performed throughout the year; they are presented regularly during Carnival and sometimes at Ascension. Their entrepreneurs are noblemen and other well-to-do persons who each season (by privilege from the Republic) select the libretto, the music, the singers, the orchestra, and everything else that goes with them. They also supply the funds for them; they receive the profit if they succeed, but should the opera not be successful they suffer losses.
One of the above theaters has five rows of boxes and ten to twelve rows of connected chairs in the orchestra. Unlike other cities, there is no fixed price for the boxes: prices are lowered or raised depending on the success of the opera. One also has to rent an entire box, whereas elsewhere individual box seats are sold. The orchestra chairs, however, have a given price: at St. Chrysostomo: in 1721 one pays three lire fifteen sols admission and thirty-six sols for each chair. At St. Angelo, on the other hand, admission costs two lire and a chair thirty sols, and at St. Moses thirty-one sols admission and twenty sols for a seat.
The little book in which the opera text is printed usually costs thirty sols, at times more, depending on how thick it is. The operas, which are performed every day, begin at 7:00 in the evening and last until 11:00 at night, after which most people go to the fancy-dress ball.
Foreigners would not be ashamed to go to the orchestra section at the opera. Even princes, counts and other persons of quality occasionally take seats there because you have a better view than in the boxes. Moreover, everyone wears a mask.
Whatever is done, no one complains. People in the boxes, especially the upper ones, are at times so insolent they will do anything – even spit – particularly when they see someone using a small candle to read the libretto.
The most insolent of all are the gondoliers (baracaruoli), who are admitted gratis, and other common folk, who stand below the boxes on all sides. They clap, whistle and yell so loudly that they drown out the singers. They pay no attention to anyone and they call this Venetian freedom. They applaud by stamping their feet and by shouting a loud bravo, while clapping is common elsewhere. In St. Angelo and in other lesser theaters, if the audience wishes to hear an aria repeated they stamp their feet until the male or the female singer comes out again. This is not the custom at St. Chrysostomo where arias are not repeated. “
Johann Friedrich Armand von Uffenbach, in his Journal, 1715 wrote:
I stayed here [the casino] until it was time to go to the opera, and then went with some acquaintances to the S. Angelo house, which is smaller and also not as expensive as the one described above [SS. Giovanni e Paolo]; its entrepreneur was the celebrated Vivaldi, who also composed the opera, which was really nice, and very attractive to the eye; the machines were not as expensive as in the other theatre and the orchestra not so large, but none the less it was well worth hearing. Out of fear of being pushed around and spit on like the first time [at the SS. Giovanni and Paolo where, from the balcony, someone spit on his programme book], we took a lodge – which was not too expensive – and got our revenge, following the local custom, on the people below, as had been done to us the last time… the singers were incomparable and had nothing to envy those of the bigger theatre, especially certain of the women…
- Composer _
Vivaldi was a prolific composer whose impact on the history of music is only just beginning to be understood. Over 850 of his musical works have survived.. These can be divided into three principal categories: instrumental music, sacred music and operas. For a more in-depth description see the section entitled "THE MUSIC".
INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC & CONCERTOS
Vivaldi was the first to fully develop the concerto style in which a solo instrument is the protagonist, leading the orchestra. Once he discovered this virtuosto style on his own instrument, the violin, he went on to write the first concertos in the history of music for violoncello, bassoon, flute, recorder, mandolin, viola d’amore, oboe and mixed groups of instruments. He developed this new style to a greater degree than any other composer in the 18th century.
Vivaldi, who composed with great ease and possessed a boundless musical imagination, enjoyed the rare privilege of having a fine orchestra at his command. This allowed him to try out continuously his musical ideas and combinations. A great many of his concertos must have been written for soloists in the orchestra of the Pietà but he would have received many commissions from virtuosto performers of the day as well.
The post of maestro di coro, a position which Vivaldi held on and off at the Pietà, required the composition of two new Mass and Vesper settings annually, two motets every month and occasional compositions as required for funerals, Holy Week, etc.. It would not be reckless to assume that, at a time when music was an integral part of religious services, Vivaldi may have received commissions from outside the Pietà for sacred works as well.
Over sixty sacred pieces by Vivaldi, including four oratorios (of which only one is extant), are known today.
Along with Napoli, Venice at the end of the 17th and throughout the 18th century, was the richest city in the world for opera. The public demand was great and composers such as Vivaldi were producing new works fast and furiously to meet that demand. In a letter written at the end of his life to Marchese Bentivoglio Vivaldi claimed to have written more than 94 operas in his lifetime. This may seem enormous but one must consider that we have some 50 libretti for operas he composed. Moreover, he may have counted pasticci (operas to which he made a contribution of one or more arias) as well. Finally, it would not be surprising that over the ages the autograph scores of some of his operas (none were published in his lifetime) have simply been lost. In any event, if Vivaldi’s claim is true this output renders him a more prolific opera composer than Handel, Caldara or Hasse.
- Anna Giro _
A notary document gives Anna Girò’s birth date as 1710, in Mantua. She is next attested in Venice in l724 where she made her debut as a mezzo-soprano in Albioni’s opera Laodice. This may be where Vivaldi first came in contact with her and in 1726 he enlisted her to sing in his opera Dorilla. Anna would go on to become Vivaldi’s protégé and prima donna. She and her sister often travelled with the composer, who needed constant help getting around (in another letter in which he speaks of his infirmity he says “My travels were very expensive because I always took along four or five persons to assist me”.). Unfortunately, Vivaldi's association with Anna has given rise to many unfounded suppositions concerning the nature of their relationship.
On 23 November 1737, in a letter addressed to the Marchese Guido Bentivolgio, Vivaldi defended himself against an accusation of intimacy beyond music between himself and Anna Girò. He said “I never stay at the Giròs’ house. Let wicked tongues say what they wish, Your Excellency must know that I have a house in Venice for which I pay two hundred ducats: the Giròs’ live in another house very far from mine.” In fact, contemporary property censuses confirm that Vivaldi and Anna lived in separate houses. Moreover, had she a something to hide it would be unlikely that she could have successfully found a nobleman to marry her in 1748.
Apart from his travels, Vivaldi lived in his family home in Venice all his life with his parents and siblings. Anna Girò was in the continual company of her half-sister Paolina who may well have served as chaperone and as an added attendent to Vivaldi. It seems highly unlikely that Anna Girò and Vivaldi could have had an intimate affair in this context. Moreover, it would have been quite difficult in a close-knit town like Venice to keep such an amourous liason a secret. Tongues would have wagged, and more than one evil wisher would have taken advantage of the situation to harm the Red Priest’s reputation.
We know that Anna Girò was performing in Graz during the 1739-1740 season. We have no trace of her again until 1742 when a tax record says she had “travelled to Vienna”. The last Venetian opera in which she seems to have performed in was at the Teatro San Samuele in 1747. The following year she married the widowed Count Antonio Maria Zanardi Landi.
- Ferrara 1737 _
The year 1737 was perhaps one of the most difficult in Vivaldi’s life. His father passed away in 1736, leaving him alone to manage his own affairs for the first time in his life. He had worked ardously on an opera that was scheduled to be performed in Ferrara when the Nunzio Apostolico forbid both Vivaldi’s entry into the city of Ferrara and the performance of his opera on the grounds that he was “a priest who did not say mass” and because of his “friendship with the singer Girò”.
Cardinal Ruffo had recently been appointed to rule over Ferrara, a fief of the Vatican. An extremist, he set about to redress morals and Catholic doctrine. Vivaldi may have simply been an easy target for the Cardinal to use to set an example. This incident may have also been partially provoked by petty jealousy, avarice or competition among professional musicians.
Apart from the economic ruin this represented for Vivaldi, it was also a tremendous blow to his reputation and that of Anna Girò and her sister. In a long autobiographical letter (see: Documentation - Letters) Vivaldi speaks of his infirmity (a form of asthma) and strongly underlines the purely protegée-assistant relationship he had with Anna Girò. However, his association with the city of Ferrara was already compromised. The opera was cancelled despite the fact that Vivaldi had already signed contracts and paid advances and the economic setback this caused him must have been significant.
- The Last Years _
A document from 29 April 1740 records La Pietà’s decision to acquire a large number of concertos by Vivaldi, mentioning the fact that the composer intended to leave Venice. This is the last evidence of his presence in that city and the next trace of him is not until 7 February 1741 in Vienna.
Was Vivaldi incapable of managing his own economic affairs - his monetary problems having begun after his father’s passing four years earlier? Did he flee to Vienna to escape debt? Perhaps he felt there was no future for him in Venice - where operas of the Neapolitan school and J.A. Hasse were now the fashion - and thus he hoped his career might continue to flourish in Vienna?
Through his patron, Charles VI, Vivaldi possibly expected to find commissions at court and operatic possibilities. Unfortunately, Charles VI died in the autumn of 1740 and this, coupled with the beginning of the War of Austrian Succession, must have dashed all of his hopes.
It is perhaps not by coincidence that Vivaldi took up residence in a building just a few steps from the Kaerntnertortheater. In fact, in 1742 the theatre presented Vivaldi’s opera L’oracolo in Messina which may have been scheduled originally for autumn 1740 or Carnival 1741 and that had been presented in Venice in 1738. It is very likely that Vivaldi was involved in the preparation for this Viennese performance.
The official coroner’s report in the burial account book of St. Stephen’s Cathedral Parish states that on 28 July 1741, “The Very Reverend Signor Antonio Vivaldi, secular priest, died of an internal inflammation in Satler’s house by the Kaerntner Gate, aged sixty years, [buried] in the hospital burial ground”.Neither the house where he died nor the burial ground (also called “poor sinners’ burial ground”) exist today.
- Biographical chronology _
4 March - Antonio Vivaldi was born in Venice, and baptised in extremis, first son of Giovanni Battista and Camilla Calicchio.
March – ordained priest and hired as “maestro di violino” at the Ospedale della Pietà. Vivaldi maintained his association with La Pietà on and off throughout his life.
1705 - First publication (op. 1) of his 12 trio sonatas in Venice.
Mention in a guide for tourists to Venice that Antonio and his father were the best violinists to be heard in Venice.
1709 - Second publication (op. 2) of 12 violin sonatas in Amsterdam.
1711 - Publication in Amsterdam of L'Estero armonico (op. 3).
First opera, Ottone in Villa, performed in Vicenza.
Began his association with the opera theatre Teatro Sant'Angelo as composer and impressario.
Publication in Amsterdam of La stravaganza (op. 4).
Vivaldi promoted to maestro de’ concerti at the Ospedale della Pietà.
Publication in Amsterdam of opp. 5, 6 & 7 (violin concerti)
1718 – 1720
Vivaldi employed as "director of chamber music" at the court of Prince Philip of Hesse-Darmstadt in Mantua.
1723 - 1724
Vivaldi in Rome where two of his operas were being performed. Sketched by Pier Leone Ghezzi.
Publication of Il cimento dell'armonia e dell'inventione (op. 8) in Amsterdam.
Publication of La Cetra (op. 9) in Amsterdam.
Meeting in Trieste with Emperor Charles VI.
Publication of 6 flute concertos (op. 10) in Amsterdam.
Vivaldi’s father received one-year’s leave from the orchestra of San Marco to accompany his son to central Europe.
Opp. 11 & 12 published in Amsterdam.
Returned to Venice.
Vivaldi was once again "maestro de’concerti" at the Pietà.
Cardinal Ruffo forbid Vivaldi's entrance into the city of Ferrara to conduct his opera.
Feraspe, last Vivaldi opera to be performed in Venice.
Between 12 and 24 May Vivaldi left for Vienna.
During the night between 27 and 28 July, Vivaldi died from “an internal inflamation”.
- In Search of Vivaldi _
In Search of Vivaldi
“In Search of Vivaldi” is a special edition cd/book which Naïve released for the Vivaldi celebrations which took place in Versailles in the summer of 2011. This xxx page compendium of information on and around Vivaldi and his world is lavishly illustrated with many colour reproductions, obscure anecdotes a biography and much more. The two accompanying cds unite the best of the Venetian master’s sacred, instrumental and vocal music. http://www.naive.fr/#/work/sur-les-traces-de-vivaldi